x32 gain staging

Digital recordings at 24-bit resolution offer a greater dynamic range than most users need — ie. Green levels are good and red is bad. This range provides optimal levels and prevents overloading the master. I wouldn't expect to see peaks on the channel meters reading more than -8 to -10dBFS (and lower is often better).

Even if I threw down a prosaic definition of gain staging—say, “adjusting the level at each point of amplification to ensure an optimal signal-to-noise ratio, without unwanted distortion”—it might only confuse you, especially if you didn’t understand the building blocks of that definition.

In case you're unconvinced, let's compare dynamic range in the digital and analogue realms. Win! Use a gain plugin and automate the volume. Also, use a gain plugin when there are no input or output controls available.

Meanwhile, if you find that you need things louder when you're mixing, use the volume knob on your monitor controller, amp or speakers, because it's perfectly possible to increase the loudness of a mix during a mastering process, but it's not possible to rescue an overloaded mix by turning it down.

These analog-style meters are much slower and measure the average level, rather than each peak. All contents copyright © SOS Publications Group and/or its licensors, 1985-2020.

Not really.

Is gain-staging really necessary in DAW software? Most plugins change volume levels. Copyright © 2001–2020 iZotope, Inc. All rights reserved.

I've often thought it might be useful to have an (optional) input clip light on each DAW insert slot and at the top of each channel, not as a lazy means of protection, but as an aid to tracking down problems more quickly. It also may be super-annoying to turn down a fader with a bunch of automation already written for it. Sounds with drastic changes in dynamics will give you quite and loud levels. In other words, poor gain staging. One crucial and often overlooked step in the mixing process is gain staging. Check out our Music Programs.

This may affect how the drums hit any processing on the master bus. Grimes’ productions are full of emotive intricacy and complexity. Analogue meters, whether they take the form of a moving-coil device or a stack of LEDs, are always 'integrating' types of one sort or another: they're designed to display the average level of a signal calculated over a defined window of time, and the analogue electrical and mechanical components mean that they effectively have a built-in 'attack time'.

I shall not get into the mathematics or the science; if that interests you, I’ll leave it for deeper reading in Bob Katz’s book.

The stage is now yours to gain!

In fact, that's a good way of looking at this whole subject: gain-staging is about providing you with a safety buffer.

In the digital world, it’s critical not to overload your devices and track levels. We have to work with the tools at our disposal, although if you're working entirely in the box you don't need to mimic the analogue signal flow so precisely.

Get tips on how to achieve proper gain staging – including how a good, simple VU meter can help you. Web site designed & maintained by PB Associates & SOS.

So the next time you’re at a music meet-and-great and fellow mixers sling around terms like gain staging, noise-floor, and headroom, you’ll have a better idea of what they mean.

Great care has been taken to ensure accuracy in the preparation of this article but neither Sound On Sound Limited nor the publishers can be held responsible for its contents. This technique gives you more control. before any insert processing) may be being monitored, or the signal could be post-panner (and post-inserts) or post-fader. I'm not referring exclusively to cheap plug-ins, either: there are some fantastic-sounding plug-ins by the likes of Waves, Slate and Sonnox that audibly suffer if you overload them.

This is all before you export it as a fixed-point file (a CD-quality WAV file, for instance), or before you send it through a D/A converter—do keep that in mind, or else you’ll incur distortion. Music Production Program It ensures the audio signal flow is at an optimum level without clipping as it passes through the various processors and mixer stages. Find out whether the effect improves the sound or makes it louder with these two steps: First, balance the output level to the match the input level.Second, A/B the effect by turning it on and off to hear the results.

The faders on most DAW mixers are designed to allow finer control over gain/attenuation at around their unity-gain position, so try to set your levels with the faders at or around that position. If you don't understand gain structure, you may be undermining your recordings and mixes without even realising it.

The chances are that the meters are already into or approaching the red. A typical mid-budget computer interface will deliver exactly the same dynamic range, and even budget ones will manage 115dB or more. the digital system's noise floor is so far below the wanted signal that you just don't need to think about it any more.

Some plug-ins, including the pictured one by Zplane, enable you to mimic the more useful analogue VU and PPM meters — but there's no practical way to display these readings for all your mixer channels simultaneously!

That's used by default in all DAW mixers (although, thankfully, progress is at last being made in meaningful loudness metering on the stereo mix bus).

There were issues in getting these good results: go for something too quiet, and you’d approach the noise-floor (a blanket of constant, audible hiss that, if present in the overall mix, would be distracting). Plus, that list of considerations will surely come in handy.

You’ve got options for how to treat the problem, including: The result of these methods will get you to similar places, but each has its own benefits and drawbacks: This will get you different results depending on the DAW. The output signal from the track mixer will then travel through either a group bus or into the master track. But it’s easy to get wrong!

Say, furthermore, that you’ve got a compressor you really like on the drum buss, so you don’t want to change how you drive it. So in this article, we’ll cover those building blocks. You can unsubscribe at any time.

In this article, I'll focus on one fundamental issue that blights many tracks sent to SOS for help or advice: poor management of levels throughout the signal chain. Music Business Program One by one, however, DAW and plug-in developers alike turned to floating-point processing, and now we find ourselves in a new reality. Note that your DAW's sample-peak meters will not catch 'inter-sample peaks,' where the true reconstructed waveform can reach 3dB or more above 0dBFS between the sample values (this is why the 'True-Peak' meter — which is an oversampling meter — was included within the ITU-R BS1770 loudness metering specifications). Ensure there’s enough headroom for the plugin to process the audio.

Heck, you can automate the plug-in down at specific moments where you’re hitting the digital ceiling—micro adjustments that only affect the sound for milliseconds, yet save you from clipping upon export! Many people like to start a track with a software drum machine and overdub other parts as they build a composition and mix, all as part of the same process. They're only really of any use when mixing if you fail to leave sufficient headroom in the first place, and they provide you with very little useful information that a couple of LEDs couldn't, yet they take up vast swathes of screen real-estate!

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